What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation – Phased technology of work

What are the roofs of houses-

The roof is considered as important in the structure of the house as the base and walls. It belongs to the number of supporting structures, therefore, it must meet a number of requirements: be strong, reliable, durable, well insulated, have good heat and sound insulation. Which roofs of houses to choose is the prerogative of the poor homeowner. The main thing here is not to make a mistake in the choice. The roof must also correspond, in terms of the type of forms, be fireproof.

To make these requirements easier to fulfill before creating a house project, you need to select the shape in advance, calculate the height, select the appropriate materials for its construction.

What forms are there?

There are several types of roof shapes. The choice should be based on design features:

Non-standard and complex roof shape

Non-standard and complex roof shape

  • Mono-pitched. One roof plane resting on two outer walls of unequal heights. It is used for utility rooms (barn) and on garages.
  • Gable. It has 2 planes, which, as in the first case, are supported by 2 external wall structures, but of the same height. The planes are designed at a certain angle in relation to each other.
  • Hip. It has slopes on the front side in the form of a triangle. The side walls also look like a truncated triangle or a trapezoid.
  • Half-hip. Consists of 2 ramps. End surfaces are triangular in shape.
  • Broken. A very complex roof model. At the bottom, the slopes are triangular, at the top they are connected, and always at an obtuse angle.
  • Tent. It is also not without difficulties. It is a quadrangular structure with 4 slopes of the same size.
  • Cruciform. Used when the house has a complex shape. A design engineer should make calculations and a project in this type. This is explained by the fact that the cruciform shape of the roof provides for the calculation and installation of gutters. It is important to place them correctly in the structure. Otherwise, leaks cannot be avoided..

Variety of these designs

Variety of these designs

There are many roof shapes. Here you need to learn not only to choose the shape, but also to correctly calculate the roof structure. Only then will the roof perform the functions that are entrusted to it..

Why you need to calculate the height and how to do it correctly?

The roof is the part of the house that is more likely to be exposed to atmospheric conditions.. With an incorrectly selected angle of inclination, and, accordingly, the height, the risks that due to the influence of strong winds and precipitation, its integrity will be violated. We’ll have to carry out roof repairs to fix the problems – this is the best case. At worst, you will have to build it from scratch..

Make your home unique

Make your home unique

Role of height indicators

You can not neglect the standards when creating a project. The reliability of the structure and the health of those who will live there depend on this.. Below are a number of arguments that can 100% confirm the correctness of the above and the importance of the correct calculation of the roof height for the structure. at home:

  • Reliability and durability. Correctly calculated and selected height will allow the roof to be resistant to external, weather influences, resistance to increased loads, for example, roofing, insulation.
  • Aesthetics. Appearance plays an important role. If its height does not correspond to the structure of the house, then such a roof will not look aesthetically pleasing..
  • Convenience. At the right height, you can build an attic.

This part of the house is equally important.

This part of the house is equally important.

The highest point is called the ridge.. This is the point where all the sloped planes of the roof join. If its height is chosen incorrectly, then there is a risk that the roof will not serve the period for which the owner of the house was calculated. Ridge height parameters must strictly correspond to the technological process.

What determines the height of the ridge?

An important parameter in the calculation is the slope angle. There is a list of factors on which it is based mainly on atmospheric influences:

  • winds, if they rage often in the region, then the slope angle should be 10-20 degrees;
  • precipitation in areas where they fall abundantly above 45 degrees;
  • snow – in very snowy winters, the angle of inclination may be similar to the previous point.

Combination of one color

Combination of one color

AdviceMore detailed regulatory data can be taken from the requirements of SNiP 2301-99.

Choice of height by type of roof

Here, height calculations are carried out taking into account the type of coverage:

  • If there are many piece elements in roof materials, the angle of inclination should be chosen as large as possible..
  • If the roof structure is low, joints should be kept to a minimum..
  • For very heavy roofing masses, the largest slope is selected so that the weight can be evenly distributed over the entire surface..

Calculation parameters taking into account the width of the building

Here, the cross-section of the structure is represented as an equilateral triangle. Where the height parameter is the leg. Further, the calculation is made as follows:

What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work

What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work

  • the tangent in relation to the selected slope angle is determined;
  • knowing the width of the house box and one of the sides adjacent to the corner, the value is calculated by dividing the indicator by 2;
  • the resulting result is substituted into the calculation formula a = tg a × b.

Using this formula, you can calculate the height of the ridge without errors. Just be sure to include the width of the house in the calculation. The larger it is, the higher you need to make the angle of the slope..

Roofing materials. What to do with the bias when choosing?

Professionals identify the following criteria:

  • Colour;
  • forms;
  • specific gravity;
  • price;
  • the price of installation work;
  • reliability and strength.

Flat roof option

Flat roof option

When purchasing a roof covering, you need to pay attention to weight. For example, let’s compare two popular types – metal and ceramic tiles.. The latter is 10 times heavier than the first time. And this plays a significant role in the design of rafters..

  • combination with facade;
  • the price of the roofing material was not too low;
  • the mass should not exceed the permissible value, otherwise the walls may not withstand it;
  • comply with the established standards.

Many buyers make the mistake of buying cheaper coverage – it is often of poor quality, which means it will not last long..

Coverage doesn't have to be cheap

Coverage doesn’t have to be cheap

What materials can be used?

The list of roof coatings is quite wide. Each has its own advantageous characteristics and disadvantages..

Metal tile

Most popular over the years:

  • endowed with high rates of mechanical stress;
  • resistant to moisture;
  • does not deteriorate when exposed to atmospheric factors;
  • well protects the house from ultraviolet radiation;
  • the specific gravity is small.

Due to its low weight, it can cover a wide variety of roof shapes. At the same time, the pressure on the foundation and walls will remain small, which means that the fortress of the house will be high.

Metal tiles are the most popular over the years

Metal tiles are the most popular over the years

Ceramic tile

It has been produced for a long time – more than 100 years. Significantly improves the appearance of the facade in comparison with the clay counterpart. Counts:

  • Reliable coverage.
  • Has a long service life.
  • It is characterized by high strength.
  • Not affected by moisture.
  • Provides absolute UV protection.

With all the advantageous characteristics, it also has several disadvantages:

  • high cost;
  • large mass.

Ceramic tile - produced for over 100 years

Ceramic tile – produced for over 100 years


Enjoys a reputation. Positions in quality and consumer demand:

  • reliable;
  • moisture resistant;
  • lasting;
  • protects against UV;
  • well tolerates high loads;
  • resistant to mechanical stress;
  • endowed with waterproofing properties;
  • fireproof;
  • does not corrode;
  • has good flexibility.

Installed on a deck installed from strip strips.

Ondulin - enjoys a reputation

Ondulin – enjoys a reputation


The cheapest roofing material:

  • service life – 40 years or more;
  • moisture resistant;
  • withstands mechanical stress;
  • well withstands high loads, for example, a snow layer.


  • In the course of long-term use, its edges begin to crumble;
  • In places where it is constantly shaded, lichen begins to appear.

Slate is the cheapest roofing material

Slate is the cheapest roofing material

Corrugated board

Roofers often work with this material, referring to the fact that it is reliable and very durable.. In comparison with metal tiles, it has wider sheets, as well as:

  • small specific gravity;
  • high strength indicators;
  • considered an environmentally friendly coating;
  • has a wide selection of colors;
  • it can be installed in any weather conditions.


  • makes a lot of noise if it rains;
  • complex roof shapes require a lot of material;
  • subject to corrosion during operation;
  • places of drilling or cuts need additional processing;
  • requires the laying of a hydraulic layer to prevent condensation;
  • requires additional insulation.

Decking - reliable and very durable

Decking – reliable and very durable

Flexible shingles

Seamless bitumen-impregnated fiberglass coating. The outer part is treated with basalt, painted in different colors:

  • has high strength;
  • endowed with good sound and heat insulation properties;
  • provides excellent sealing.

From this entire list, you can choose any roofing material. Which one will be the best for you.

Shingles - fiberglass-based seamless roofing

Shingles – fiberglass-based seamless roofing

The choice of insulation – which is better?

When choosing a good insulation, refer not only to the cost price, but also to the technical and operational characteristics. And also on the complexity of the installation. The insulation can be laid with your own hands, although in some cases you will need to use special equipment. Criteria for choosing a good insulation:

  • thermal conductivity coefficient – the smaller it is, the better;
  • moisture resistance;
  • lifetime;
  • stability of shape and appearance;
  • heat insulator weight;
  • resistance to low temperature indicators;
  • soundproofing properties;
  • environmental friendliness.

What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work

What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work

The list of errors that are allowed during installation, as a result of which insulation does not give an effect:

  • Saving on the cost of the material, which means that you need to trust trusted manufacturers on its quality.
  • Insufficient thickness of the thermal insulation layer.
  • The laying technology is violated – the waterproofing or vapor barrier is poorly laid, there are no gaps at the joints in the pitched roof pie.

Choosing a good insulation from all possible

Among the most commonly used are:

Mineral wool

It has a fibrous structure made from rock alloys. One of the most effective. Comes on sale in rolls or in the form of slabs.

AdviceChoosing mineral wool, the buyer needs to pay attention to the thickness and density.

Insulation - mineral wool

Insulation – mineral wool

Advantageous characteristics:

  • high coefficient of thermal insulation;
  • price;
  • mineral wool does not burn;
  • environmental friendliness;
  • ease of styling;
  • biostability – it is not subject to putrefaction, it will not be damaged by rodents or insects;
  • has good vapor permeability;
  • the sound insulation coefficient is high;
  • does not lose shape.

Basalt slabs of high rigidity are recommended for use when insulating a flat roof. With less rigidity and thickness for pitched. Stone can serve as an element of fire protection.

Has a fibrous structure made from rock alloys

Has a fibrous structure made from rock alloys

When installing mineral wool insulation, it is imperative to provide a vapor barrier and waterproofing layers. And also take care of the organization of ventilation gaps. This will prevent condensation from forming. If this is not done, then the rafters will begin to rot over time..

Glass wool

In terms of its thermal insulation properties, it is close to mineral wool, it has been used as a heat insulator for a long time. Made of fused glass. It goes on sale in a roll form, it is characterized as a good, environmentally friendly and non-combustible material.

When using this insulation, you should protect your hands, body and eyes with special equipment. Observe the installation technology during installation.

Glass wool has long been used as a heat insulator

Glass wool has long been used as a heat insulator

If you buy glass wool without a foil-clad outer coating (this is an improved type that has been used recently by many manufacturers), then you should take care of laying a vapor barrier layer from the same foil.

Expanded polystyrene

It is also used polystyrene very often in wall insulation and as a heat insulator for the roof:

  • It is characterized as a material with high thermal insulation properties..
  • Resistant to moisture.
  • Does not absorb steam, which means it can be laid directly on the waterproofing, there is no need to organize an air gap.

When laying polystyrene in pitched roofs, it is imperative to ensure that the edges of the material fit snugly against it. After installation, the seams must be treated with polyurethane foam..

Polyfoam is used very often in wall insulation.

Polyfoam is used very often in wall insulation.

The material is flammable and vapor-proof, which means that it cannot be used in the insulation of flat roofs..

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Polyurethane foam

Also good for roof insulation. The list of its advantages includes:

  • low thermal conductivity;
  • small weight;
  • good sound insulation;
  • biostability;
  • good waterproofing properties.

The material is endowed with sufficient rigidity. Well cut, drilled. Does not lose forms during service.

Polyurethane foam insulation can be stacked (tiled form) or sprayed on (liquid form).

Polyurethane foam - the material is endowed with sufficient rigidity

Polyurethane foam – the material is endowed with sufficient rigidity


Made from paper. Refers to environmentally friendly roofing insulation. Endowed with good sound and heat insulation qualities. In order for the material to be non-flammable and not be damaged by rodents and insects, ecowool manufacturers treat it with defenseless substances and antipyrine..

It belongs to the lightest and cheapest types of insulation. Sold in liquid form. when using it as insulation for the roof (between the rafters), it is necessary to create some closed boxes. Ecowool is blown into them so that it not only fills the space, but all kinds of cracks. Disadvantages – the use of special equipment in installation work.

There are other ways to insulate the roof.

Ecowool - made from paper

Ecowool – made of paper

Roof painting – nuances, methods, features

The roof is covered with different materials, the peculiarity of the work and the feasibility of using painting depends on this.:

1Slate. It looks good at the beginning. Over time, it fades, lichen islands begin to appear on its surface. You can prevent these manifestations by painting it with water dispersion or acrylic paint. They are resistant to external and weather factors. True, before this, the coating should be tinted. 2Corrugated board. It is rarely repainted. During production, they are coated with a colored coating based on polymers. They paint it only in the process of restoration or restoration work. 3Sheet metal. It is painted, but before that you need to treat the surface with an anti-corrosion primer. Small country house

Small country house

The roof is painted in two ways – manual or machine. Before the procedure, you should adhere to the following requirements:

  • Do not paint the roof in bad weather, especially when it rains. It is best to do this in the spring in April or May, in the fall in September or October. During these periods, the coloring layer will have the best adhesion, which means it will last a long time..
  • In summer, it is generally not recommended to paint because of the heat..
  • Carry out the painting in non-slip and non-scratching shoes.
  • If work is carried out at a high altitude, you need to take care of your own safety by tying yourself with a rope to the rafters or beam.
  • It is highly discouraged to hook the safety rope to the chimney – it is unreliable support, it may not support the weight of the body.

Interesting, transparent canopy

Interesting, transparent canopy

How many layers should the roof be painted?

In order for the paint layer to be stronger and look proper, at least 2 layers of paint should be applied:

  • At the first application, you need to take 700 grams of drying oil for each kilogram of paintwork, mix and only then paint.
  • When painting again, for each kilogram of paint, you need to take already 5000 grams of drying oil.

Application technology – or how long to wait between the first and second painting:

  • After applying the first layer, you need to wait a week for it to dry well..
  • The second layer will dry for 3 days longer, that is, in total it is 10 days.
  • If you decide to apply the 3rd layer, then you need to use and wait for just such a time frame..

Modern and stylish

Modern and stylish

How to choose a color for the roof and facade?

White the color of the facade has long gone out of fashion. It was replaced by more interesting solutions. They are less dirty and more pleasing to the eye. This approach is fraught with the need to choose not a monotonous, but a colored roof design. It must be in harmony with the walls and landscape..

Before purchasing material for a roofing with a color shade, or taking up a brush, you need to visualize the result at least a little. If you cannot do this yourself, contact the architectural bureau.

You can draw your house on paper, painting it in the color scheme you prefer. And having created a model on a computer, you can consider your version in a three-dimensional image, if you wish, recreate your own around it. landscape. This will be the most correct and reliable option to see how the house will look from the outside..

The white color of the facade has long gone out of fashion

The white color of the facade has long gone out of fashion

You can order a ready-made turnkey project, but such a service is not available to everyone. You can consider all possible options in another way – by creating a template. To do this, a flat projection of your facade must be translated into tracing paper. (you can also use plastic wrap), and then using the color substitution method, choose a shade, manufacturer.

Even if everything goes well with the color, the chosen option will suit you in all respects, you do not need to run and buy completely all the coloring material. First, you need to paint a small piece of the facade and roof in the selected colors..

The final shade assessment is influenced by:

  • surface texture;
  • type of base;
  • lighting.

High-tech house

High-tech house

Look at them at different times of the day and weather conditions:

  • in the morning before sunrise;
  • during the day in good lighting;
  • in the evening, when only the lanterns are on;
  • on a cloudy day.

The disadvantage of this matching method is that it can test a limited number of colors..

Features of a colored roof

A multi-colored roof can affect the visual perception of the house as a whole. It can even change its configuration – increasing in size, albeit visually, or, conversely, reducing it, hiding not too obvious flaws by adjusting the level of insolation. It suggests itself, based on all that has been said, what should be expected from the color that you liked more than others?

Using clear lines

Using clear lines

  • A dark-colored roof warms up strongly in the heat and absorbs light. This decision will be justified in the northern regions. In the south, use a lighter palette..
  • Bright saturated colors are picturesque. Only they will start to burn out very soon. Such variations are used only in the roof of simple architectural forms. Where there are not many small elements.
  • It is not recommended to make a white roof because it will eventually become covered with yellow spots and will have an unpresentable appearance..
  • Gray is the most practical, but boring. Make sure that the facade with a gray roof is extraordinary.

What colors can you paint the walls of the house?

The choice of color for painting the walls of the facade from the street is dominated by those that are directly related to naturalness:

The house is made in pure white

The house is made in pure white

They can be safely combined with each other. Such facades will look cozy and presentable. A good option is yellow-sunny walls with dark doors and windows.

Good to use Gray and white colors. The second is considered neutral, so it can be combined with any other. Gray works well as the main background. Will completely emphasize the colorfulness and saturation of any others. And by painting the roof red, you are guaranteed a fashionable classic.

Red not only roofs are tinted, they are often used in facade painting. But on the walls its saturation is not as bright as on the roof – it resembles brickwork. If you veneer the facade with a clinker tiles, and the roof, window and doors paint in a light color, then the look of the house will be complete.

A good option is yellow with dark doors and windows

A good option is yellow with dark doors and windows

From fashion trends – the use of blue. It is good to combine it with white, gray, beige. If the walls are painted blue, the doors with windows are white, and the roof is made gray, then you will hardly find more elegant appearance in the area.

The purple, black or navy blue facade is not nonsense. But be warned, this decision is not given to everyone. This is a rather bold decision in the design of facades.. If you choose a dark background of the walls, the roof and other details need to be made light.

If you are afraid to make a mistake

In order not to be mistaken in the selection of colors, you need to remember this.

Derivatives of the same color are always combined with each other. If, for example, the facade is made in warm colors, decorate the roof in the same warm color. If you use a cold palette for her, then the appearance will be, to put it mildly, ridiculous.

For a classic roof, use natural colors with ocher. It can be beige or brown.

Large surfaces such as the wall of the house and the roof are also not desirable to be painted in monochromatic dark shades. The appearance will be unnecessarily depressing. The option where small details will be shaded with light colors will look much more fun..

What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work

What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work What are the roofs of houses? Material, painting, insulation - Phased technology of work

The individuality of the structure can be given by making the background (walls) dark, the windows and doors are light, the basement brighter and more saturated. In this version, three colors are enough..

It is very important, when choosing this or that color scheme, to ensure that it matches the architecture of the building. Moreover, you additionally need to be guided by the landscape surrounding your site..