Gardenia received such an unusual name in honor of the American botanist and naturalist Alexander Garden. This amazingly beautiful plant of the Madder family grows in the subtropical forests of India, Japan, China.
Thanks to its beauty, gardenia won the love and admiration of amateur flower growers back in the 18th century.
- About varieties of gardenia
- Some types of gardenia
- Planting and leaving
- Air humidity
- Top dressing
- Plant propagation
- Diseases and pests
- Symptoms of the disease and elimination of the cause
- Growing gardenia at home: video, photo
In the 18th-19th centuries, gardenia was already very often found in the greenhouses of flower growers in the USA, England and Scotland.
Gardenia is a favorite of perfumers
Evergreen bush in native conditions it can reach a height of more than two meters, and in home or greenhouse conditions – 50-70 cm. Gardenia leaves are paired, broadly lanceolate, pointed towards the base, up to 8 cm long, color from light to dark-green.
Very fragrant large double flowers of the plant have white, yellow-cream, orange, pink shades. Their corollas with 5-9 stamens can be funnel or bell-shaped. With good and competent care, gardenia buds are completely strewn with strong shoots. The plant pleases with its unimaginable flowering from July to late autumn..
Gardenia is one of the favorite and most popular flowers in wedding floristry. Having received the name “lapel flower” long ago, because it very often adorned the buttonholes of coats and tuxedos of English gentlemen, now it is also used for decor for wedding tables and halls, and for bouquets
According to various sources, the genus Gardenia has from 60 to 250 species of often evergreen plants. We list just a few of them:
- Gardenia thunbergia. Very tall, unpretentious and hardy plant with large snow-white flowers.
Gardenia Thunbergii is most suitable for garden summer maintenance
- Gardenia taitensis. The flower petals of this species resemble propeller blades..
Tahitian gardenia varieties have rather large flowers (in the photo – next to the flower of the more common gardenia jasminoidea (jasmine)
- Gardenia tubifera. Showy yellow flowers on a background of light foliage.
Gardenia Tubifera has several varieties, but its flowers are always yellow, with dense petals in the form of propeller blades.
- Gardenia kailarsenia (Vietnamese). Differs in large flowers with six petals.
The flowers of the Vietnamese gardenia are very large in size. Like many other gardenia varieties, the petals curl slightly during the period of falling.
- Gardenia brighamii (Hawaiian). This species has almost disappeared in nature. Its white flowers consist of six petals, have a very strong aroma.
Hawaiian gardenia is known for its strong spicy warm scent.
- Gardenia radicans. Representative of a dwarf species. Some varieties of this species have variegated leaf color..
Small Radicans gardenia bushes look very good in landscape compositions in the immediate vicinity of the house, and in addition give a strong pleasant aroma
- Gardenia citriodora. A rare variety with a subtle scent of five petal flowers similar to a lily.
The rare citriodora gardenia has pinkish petals.
- Gardenia kula. Due to its large yellow flowers, this species is sometimes called the golden gardenia..
Gardenia Kula (golden gardenia) – one of the varieties of Tubifera gardenia
V indoor floriculture the most popular species is gardenia jasmine, which has a second name “Cape Jasmine”. By the method of selection, many varieties of this species have been bred, which differ in size, shape, color of flowers and foliage, as well as the duration of flowering. Home gardenia, as a rule, has a terry texture of flowers. The bush itself can reach a height of 45-50 cm.
The bush of home jasmine gardenia grows quite high, up to 45-50 cm
Due to the high demands of the flower, caring for a gardenia at home requires special responsibility. Good lighting, constant warmth and high humidity are required. In a new place, the plant adapts for a long time. Even with a slight turn of the pot on the windowsill, the flower can shed its buds.
Gardenia is a capricious plant, therefore any manipulations with it must be justified and necessary.
Gardenia loves acidic soil, it can simply die in soil containing a large amount of lime. From a purchased mixture for growing indoor gardenia an excellent option would be soil for azalea. For self-preparation of the soil, you must take an equal amount of the following ingredients:
- leafy land;
- coniferous earth;
- turf land.
Gardenia, home care for which is necessarily accompanied by the observance of certain rules, needs good drainage. To do this, any small stone is placed on the bottom of the pot: expanded clay or pebbles. High-quality drainage will protect plants from stagnant water in the soil.
The stalk for planting must contain at least two leaves. When planting, you can not disturb the leaves of the uppermost sinus. It is here that a new life will be born – a growth bud. When planting, the cutting deepens into the prepared soil by 1.5 cm.
Spiral Jasmine Gardenia Bud
Greenhouse conditions are created by glass jars or plastic wrap. After 20 days, a light green leaf will appear at the very top of the cutting from the axil of the old leaf – this is a young shoot. When it unfolds, the plant can be considered independent. Now you need a transition to regular gardenia care at home.
Young jasmine gardenia plant in a pot
Although gardenia is a light-loving plant, it must be protected from hot sunlight. In the summer, for good development, the plant is best placed on the windowsills of the western or eastern windows. In winter, the flower develops normally on the southern windows, but additional lighting during this period it is necessary. In this case, daylight plant lamps installed at a distance of at least 60 cm above the plant are suitable..
This plant is very sensitive to any changes, especially to changes in lighting. Gardenia buds during bookmarking and development, they can even fall off if the flower is rearranged to another place. Therefore, during this period, it is not even recommended to turn the pot..
Gardenia in general is very well suited to greenhouse conditions, it can hardly tolerate any changes in the external environment.
Abundant watering gardenia is essential in spring and summer. The plant does not tolerate dry soil, but stagnant water can be detrimental to its roots. For watering, you must use filtered, boiled, but always soft water. The plant should not be watered with cold water even in a hot period. Moderate watering is provided in winter..
Gardenia requires a slightly acidic balance of water for irrigation
High air humidity is necessary during the period of bud development. To do this, pots with flowers can be placed on wet expanded clay, but without allowing the bottom of the pot to touch the surface of the water. The plant can also be sprayed during this period. When the buds are blooming, spraying stops. Moisture can be created for the plant by wiping the foliage with a damp cloth..
The necessary tropical humidity of the gardenia air can be provided by placing the pot on wet expanded clay, on another surface, or in water. At the same time, the pot should not be allowed to soak – the plant will not tolerate waterlogging.
Compliance with the temperature regime is an important condition for the successful cultivation of indoor gardenia. In spring and summer, the most optimal temperature for a plant is 22-24 ° C. In winter, 18-20 ° C is enough during the day, 16 ° – at night. The flower is afraid of sudden changes in temperature, through ventilation and cold soil.
When keeping a gardenia outdoors in summer, it should be remembered that it normally tolerates daily temperature drops only in the range of 7-8 ° C
Young plants are recommended to be fed every 14-15 days, while mineral and organic fertilizers should be alternated. From spring to late autumn, fertilizing is introduced into the soil of adult plants every week in the form of a fertilizer, which does not contain calcium. It is convenient to use liquid fertilizers containing potassium. If you notice that the gardenia turns yellow, sprinkle it with a mild solution of ferrous sulfate.
Gardenia, like many tropical plants, responds best to alternating organic and mineral fertilizers.
Pruning is recommended immediately after the gardenia has flowered. This is necessary to maintain a beautiful compact shape and remove weak or overgrown shoots. During the growing season, pinching the upper part of young shoots contributes to the appearance of new flower buds and young shoots. Pruned shoots are used to grow a new plant.
Pruning is good for gardenia, the best time for it is right after flowering
Cut gardenia flowers are amazingly decorative
Gardenia can be propagated by seed. This process is long and laborious, with its own difficulties. Even if everything goes well, and the seeds will sprout, the plant will be able to bloom only after a few years. Therefore, among flower growers, a more convenient and easy way of plant propagation is common with the help of apical semi-lignified cuttings..
Cuttings can be cut in February or March. It is necessary to make an even, neat cut. The soil for planting the cutting consists of sand and peat (1: 1). Before planting, the cutting should be lowered for a while in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
The planted cuttings need a mini greenhouse. To do this, cover it with a transparent film or glass jar. Root formation is faster if the temperature is maintained around 25 ° C, regular ventilation and periodic humidification.
In addition to the method with cuttings, the method with layering also works for gardenia (the figure shows a method of fixing a branch for its rooting)
The stalk will take root in 3-4 weeks. Before planting in the “adult” soil (which was mentioned above), it is advisable to dip the “newborn” root in growth stimulant powder.
Gardenia is often attacked by pests such as aphids, spider mites, scale insects, thrips. The plant begins to grow poorly, loses its flowers and buds.
The brown spots of gardenia that appear indicate that the plant is damaged by the scabbard. Thrips form grayish dots on the upper side of the leaf. Aphids affect the buds and tops of the shoots, which can be seen by the sticky secretions that appear on the plant. The appearance of cobwebs under the leaves and, as a result, the drying of the leaves indicates that a spider mite attacked the gardenia.
If the above listed pests are identified, it is recommended to spray the plant with an agent from the group of insecticides – chemical preparations for the destruction of plant pests. Such drugs can be:
In mild cases, one spray is sufficient. With strong aggression of pests, the treatment of the plant will have to be done three times with an interval of 7-10 days..
Gardenia disease can occur due to improper plant care..
Large fragrant flowers and luscious glossy leaves of Vietnamese gardenia
- Gardenia turns black and its leaves fall off – waterlogging causes damage to the root system. The plant is removed from the pot, the rotten part of the root is removed, drainage is added to the pot and the substrate is changed. You can kill the remaining infection on the roots and disinfect the soil with the help of the drug “Maxim”.
- Sluggish leaves, their massive dropping, as well as dropping of buds are the reasons for improper plant care: excess or lack of moisture. In all these cases, it is necessary to normalize watering and organize proper gardenia care..
Gardenia jasmine is a very decorative flower, the deserved second name of which is “gardenia Augusta” (regal)