Anthurium is an excellent exotic home plant. Its main advantage is a rich color palette of buds, from bright red to snow-white, including purple, burgundy, pink tones. There are also varieties with multi-colored and black bracts. This interesting plant has other names, for example, “flamingo flower”, “fire tongue”. Sometimes he is called “male happiness”, because, according to legend, he brings courage, determination, courage to the stronger sex.
The main types of anthurium
Anthurium is an ornamental deciduous plant native to the tropical forests of the New World, where it grows in the form of terrestrial grasses and vines. This culture has about 700 species, but 30 pure species and about a hundred hybrids are used for sowing. The classification consists of three main groups:
1. Beautifully flowering – are very popular with flower growers, as they have inflorescences of unique beauty. Such varieties as “Anthurium Scherzer” and “Andre” occupy a special place here. The first pleases with its red-orange flowering, dark green matte leaves with black blotches. “Andre” reaches a height of 1 meter, has an extensive palette of petals from white to crimson-red tones.
2. Types with a short climbing trunk, such as “Crystal Anthurium” and “Majestic Anthurium”. It is noteworthy that these plants also have graceful colored patterns on the leaves. For example, the “Crystal” foliage has a velvety finish in a deep green tone with light veins and a stunning shine. Similar to it and “Majestic”, the diameter of the leaves of which can reach 40 cm with proper care.
3. Decorative foliage, the representative of which in the home flowerpots is “Anthurium Baker”. The lower surface of its leaves has a reddish-brown pubescence, and they themselves reach 55 cm in length. This group also includes the “Anthurium climbing” species, which looks more like a liana up to 1 m long..
There are many other rather interesting varieties, each of which will perfectly complement your home interior. But, it should be noted that only the creation of favorable conditions will help to achieve bright colors and beautiful flowering of culture.
Proper care of anthurium
Anthurium is a beautiful houseplant. Originally from the tropics, it is quite demanding on external conditions. With proper care, the culture will delight its owners with bright flowering all year round, even when it is gloomy and cold outside. The main components of a favorable microclimate are optimal humidity, temperature, lighting, as well as a timely drink of the soil with additional dressings.
What can destroy anthurium is direct sunlight. At the same time, he needs bright, but diffused lighting. You can create a slight partial shade, since in a very darkened space, the growth and flowering activity will slow down. In winter, you need to equip its location with additional electric lighting.
Anthurium adapts perfectly to room temperature. He does not need to create additional heating or keep it cold. In summer, the optimum temperature will be within + 20 … + 28C, and in winter – from 15 to 18C. When the heating season begins, the anthurium must be removed from the radiators, which noticeably dry out the air. It should also be taken into account that sudden changes in temperature can destroy the flower..
Since the birthplace of anthurium is the humid forest tropics, it is necessary to create a similar microclimate in the apartment, which humidifiers successfully cope with. To avoid the negative effects of dry air, the flowerpot can be placed on a pallet with wet expanded clay, periodically spray the air around the flower. In this case, you need to ensure that drops of water do not fall on the leaves. This can lead to the formation of limescale and loss of attractiveness..
Anthuriums need good watering, and excess moisture or drying out of the soil can harm them. If water remains in the pan, you need to get rid of it. The frequency of soil moisture is determined by the dryness of the top layer. In the hot season, watering is carried out 2-3 times a week, and in winter – 1 time. The flower prefers warm soft water, so it is better to take a settled one. Anthurium leaves may turn yellow from lime water.
Fertilizers and feeding
Some growers who provide the most suitable conditions for the plant prefer not to use fertilizers at all. A favorable soil is a mixture of acidic soil with peat, tree bark and expanded clay. But it must be taken into account that no matter how fertile the soil, over time, the supply of necessary nutrients in it is exhausted..
From the beginning of spring to the end of summer (September can also be affected), twice a month, anthurium must be fed with fertilizers, alternating organic and mineral, or purchase a universal composition with a full complex. This is especially important for young plants up to six months, which are actively growing. Top dressing begins only when the culture is firmly rooted, so as not to cause a burn of the root system.
Anthurium pests and diseases
Proper care is the key to a full healthy plant life. If yellowing of the foliage is observed, the reasons may be inappropriate climatic conditions, sunburn, or, conversely, freezing, lack of moisture. With too abundant watering, the leaves of anthurium become covered with brown spots, and if the transplant was incorrectly made, they turn black and wither. There are also a number of diseases that the culture can suffer from. The most common are:
– Sooty fungus – infects leaves, stems and shoots, reproduction stops, since the plant is not able to release new shoots. The affected areas must be removed, and the flower must be treated with potassium soap;
– Soil fungus – formed when transplanting into infected soil and lack of high-quality drainage. The disease affects the root system. Damaged areas must be removed and anthurium transplanted;
– Gray mold appears on the whole plant with a gray tinge. Its appearance can be caused by high humidity, content in unventilated conditions;
– Mealy rot – is formed at high humidity and high temperatures. The flower has a white bloom, which can be treated with fungicidal agents..
Another problem for anthurium is parasite damage. These include thrips, aphids and scale insects. To heal a flower, it is necessary to apply insecticidal preparations and carry out mechanical cleaning of the plant. In this case, the diseased specimen is isolated for the duration of treatment..
How to transplant anthurium
To achieve good growth and flowering of the culture, anthurium must be constantly replanted. At the same time, new fresh soil is added to the pot. Young flowers are transplanted annually, and adults – every three years. As for the soil, it should be nutritious, light, and good for air permeability. Most often, flower growers use purchased soil..
It is important to choose the right pot – a small and narrow one promotes lush flowering, and “babies” are more often formed in a large flowerpot. Drainage must be placed on the bottom. Before you get the anthurium out of the pot, it must be watered abundantly so that the moisture saturates the entire soil well. The remnants of the old soil are crushed from the roots of the extracted flower and transplanted. If at this time the anthurium is blooming, it is better to cut the flower stalks so that the plant is easier to adapt..
Reproduction at home
Most often, vegetative propagation is used by cuttings with aerial roots, whole tops or stem suckers. Can also be propagated by seed.
Vegetative propagation of anthurium
You can plant the plant gradually, with each appearance of young shoots. Each of them must have a couple of leaves and at least the same number of rhizomes. If there is no root system, the shoot should be placed in moist sphagnum moss for one to two weeks before root emergence. After cutting the shoot, it is advisable to treat this area of the anthurium with crushed coal or ground cinnamon to avoid the possible appearance of rot or the development of a fungal infection..
Young shoots are planted in prepared moist loose soil so that the growing point remains above the soil level. As the moisture evaporates, watering is carried out.
Reproduction by basal shoots is carried out in the same way. With sufficient care, the plant acclimatizes within a month, after which the first leaves appear..
There are varieties of anthurium that have rather long climbing shoots. They can be rooted directly into the ground by pinning and sprinkling with moss..
Another way to increase the number of anthurium specimens is to simply split it up. An adult bush must be removed from the soil and carefully separated several parts, each of which is placed in a separate pot of soil. The soil must be moistened in order to accelerate the adaptation of the root system..
Reproduction of anthurium by seeds
The positive characteristic of this method is that you can get massive seedlings. For the rest, such reproduction is not particularly welcomed by florists, since the process is quite lengthy and laborious, involving independent pollination..
The seeds are extracted from the ripe fruits of the plant, washed, treated with a 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate. Sow them in a flat container with a small layer of light structured soil or perlite. In this case, the seeds are laid out and slightly pressed, without sprinkling on top.
The container, covered with foil, should be kept at a temperature of + 20 … + 25C for about two weeks. After the opening of the first full-fledged leaf, the plant can be stopped. When the size of the rosette reaches 5 cm, the anthurium is transplanted into a separate pot with a volume of up to 200 ml. Flowering can be observed no earlier than in a year and a half..
Anthurium – photo
If you want to know more about exotic anthurium, we offer you our selection of photos. The gallery contains images of different types of this plant, colors and examples of how anthurium can complement your interior. We wish you inspiration and pleasant viewing!