Flat roof house designs were initially more popular in Western countries.
For a long time, the concept of “flat roof” was perceived extremely negatively – the legacy of Soviet construction affected, when, due to the violation of technologies, poor quality of materials and the performance of work, flat roofs of high-rise buildings began to flow after a couple of years.
High-quality roofing materials and professional work with them allow us to make a reliable and contractual roof
Therefore, in private housing construction, preference was given to pitched or hipped roofs. The situation changed with the advent of modern technologies and roofing materials, which made it possible to provide durable and reliable waterproofing of the roof of a house with a flat roof..
One-storey house with a flat roof
House with a flat roof, overgrown with grass
The main reason for the growing popularity of flat roofs was the popularity of modern design trends – a high-tech house project with a flat roof allows you to match the exterior and interior of the building with the style features. Another flat roof is often used in modern and minimalism..
Multi-storey flat roof villa
However, in addition to its spectacular appearance and visual appeal, it has a number of other advantages:
- speed of roof construction – arranging a flat roof takes less time than a pitched (hipped) roof, including due to the convenience of working on a horizontal surface
Cozy terrace on a flat roof of a one-story house
- accessibility of service – there is no need to install ladders or attract climbers, all work (cleaning gutters, monitoring ventilation ducts, cleaning leaves, etc.) can be done independently
A flat roof is much easier and safer to maintain
- obtaining additional space due to the arrangement of the operated roof
Using roof space as seating areas
- flat roof is ideal for installation and further operation / maintenance of various technological equipment – solar panels, wind generators, heaters, air conditioners, antennas, water collection systems.
Solar panels are installed on the roofs of a small residential complex
Solar panels are installed on the flat roof of a small house.
A rather controversial issue is the cost of installing a flat roof. On the one hand, the area of such a roof is much smaller than that of a pitched roof, which means that less roofing materials will be required. And the very roofing materials used for the flat roof are cheaper..
House with a flat, unexploited roof
But, on the other hand, the use of reinforced concrete floors (in most cases, especially when creating an exploited roof) creates a significant load that requires strengthening the foundation and load-bearing walls, especially if these are projects of two-story houses with a flat roof. That, while saving money on roofing, leads to an overall increase in construction estimates.
Two-storey house with a flat roof
The question of snow accumulating on a flat roof during the winter remains controversial. Some experts are inclined to consider this a positive moment – the snow acts as an additional layer of heat insulator, thereby reducing heat loss. Others argue that snow increases the load on the supporting elements (and, therefore, this should be provided for in the project), and its subsequent melting can provoke a leakage and leakage of the roof..
The abundance of snow increases the requirements for roofing materials
Projects of houses and cottages with a flat roof can have different types of roofing:
- operated – provides for the regular presence of people on the roof or the installation of heavy objects. Such a roof requires a rigid foundation (most often reinforced concrete), and the heat-insulating material must withstand serious static and dynamic loads and be compressive strength
Roof surface decorated with stones
Large garden with footpaths on a flat roof
- unexploited – does not provide for a large load, therefore, a rigid (concrete) base can be replaced with wooden logs with a crate. To service such roofs, special ladders or bridges are used to reduce pressure and evenly distribute it over the entire roof area.
House with patio and flat, unexploited roof
One-storey house with a flat, unexploited roof
- inversion – the layer of insulation is located above the waterproofing layer, thereby providing it with additional protection against temperature extremes, ultraviolet radiation and mechanical influences, the number of freeze / thaw cycles increases. Together, this leads to a significant increase in the life of the roof. Most often, inversion roofs are used as exploited ones – you can put furniture on such a roof, walk or break flower beds.
House with a roof planted with various types of ornamental grasses
House with a roof planted with various types of ornamental grasses with a magnificent view
The constantly growing cost of modern housing forces the most efficient use of the entire available area, and this will help projects of houses with a flat exploited roof. In fact, if we consider projects of one-story houses with a flat roof, the owners get an additional “seasonal” floor at their disposal, which makes it possible, for example, to abandon the veranda, thereby freeing up additional space on the site.
Ornamental flat roof garden
Juicy bright greenery on a flat roof
There are many options for using an exploited roof:
- recreation area – you can refuse gazebos by arranging a canopy, barbecue (barbecue) on the roof, creating all the conditions for a picnic
Rooftop BBQ area
- green zone – equip flower beds, lawns and even garden beds, because the roof receives the greatest amount of sunlight
Small gardens on small modern houses
Evening illumination of residential and green areas
- winter garden – an all-season version of the green zone
Winter garden on a flat roof
- pool – creating a beach environment (good, there is plenty of sun), on the roof you can sunbathe and swim from late spring
Pool with a transparent bottom on the roof
- sports area – you can build a basketball court, install exercise equipment. Some owners even arrange a tennis court on large rooftops.
Tennis court equipped on the roof
- helipad – an attribute of premium houses
Flat roof with pool like a helipad
Flat roof: features of the device and installation
In fact, houses with a flat roof (projects, photos of which are presented below) have a roof slope within 5 degrees so that water can drain from the roof. Otherwise, a number of operations are performed – deflection – to obtain a roof slope..
House project with a flat roof No. 1
A flat roof is a multi-layer structure (Fig. 1) (in the technical literature you can find the term “pie of the exploited roof”), when laying it, not only the quality of materials and work is of great importance, but also the strict observance of time intervals. So, the necessary elements of a flat roof are:
Rice. 1. The device of the roofing cake of a flat roof
- rigid base – usually a flat roof is made of reinforced concrete. Before starting work, it is thoroughly cleaned and leveled, pouring in a cement screed, which tightens all cracks, chips and crevices. Work continues after the final hardening of the solution.
House project with a flat roof No. 2
- vapor barrier – a vapor barrier or bitumen-polymer film is laid over the screed. This layer is designed to protect the insulation from moisture and condensation coming from inside the building. The seams of the vapor barrier are carefully sealed (glued, welded)
House project with a flat roof No. 3
- insulation is a layer that largely determines the effectiveness and durability of the roofing cake. And since a flat roof, unlike a pitched roof, does not have a roof space (which provides additional thermal insulation), for our latitudes the issue of roof insulation is extremely important. Most often, mineral wool is used for these purposes – it is durable, fireproof, not subject to decay, resistant to compression, hydrophobic, vapor permeable. What is especially important in the case of a flat roof is that it is possible to lay the build-up waterproofing directly on it. To improve the heat saving indicators, a two-layer insulation system is used, in which the first (lower) layer acts as a heat insulator, and the second – more dense, additionally performs a distribution function
House project with a flat roof No. 4
House project with a flat roof No. 5
- waterproofing – for this, a durable, elastic, non-combustible, resistant to temperature, microorganisms, fungi and mechanical stress material is chosen. For unexploited roofing of utility rooms, roofing material or bitumen can be used. For the home, it is better to use modern coatings – PVC membranes, sprayed waterproofing (polyurea, liquid rubber), EPDM membranes, diffuse (penetrating) membranes. They are durable (with proper installation and operation, they can last up to 30 years), extremely resistant to mechanical stress. When developing them, even factors such as preventing the germination of plant roots were taken into account. PVC membranes made of polyvinyl chloride look optimal in terms of price / quality factor – they are durable, UV-resistant, non-flammable and very light.
House project with a flat roof No. 6
House project with a flat roof No. 7
Advice! For structures with complex geometry, it is better to use liquid polymers, which do not form seams after solidification..
When installing an exploited roof (Fig. 2) with planting plants on the waterproofing, it is necessary to lay geotextiles, which are laid between the drainage (gravel) and the soil. Waterproof synthetic fibers prevent soil particles from leaching into drainage and soil siltation. If planting is not planned, a concrete screed is applied over the waterproofing, on which the tiles are laid. Alternatively, gravel-sand backfill can be used as a topcoat. The type and type of topcoat is determined by the method of subsequent operation of the roof.
Rice. 2. Laying scheme of the operated flat roof
For the long-term operation of a flat roof, it is very important to properly plan and organize drainage so that moisture is efficiently removed from the roof surface. Depending on the overall project, the gutters can be internal or external, and to prevent them from freezing in winter, they can be equipped with thermal (heating) cables..
Slight slope makes it easy to solve the problem of drainage from the roof
Advice! Drain funnels are arranged in places with a slope and thoroughly waterproof the joints to the roof, they are equipped with special baskets to catch garbage.